Tuesday, 25 November 2008



The Treatise Published on the Occasion of the First Anniversary of the Death of Che Guevara in Battle, in the Eighth Issue of Tricontinental, Theoretical Organ of the Organization of Solidarity of the Peoples of Asia, Africa and Latin America October 8, 1968

It is nearly a year now since Comrade Ernesto Che Guevara, an indomitable revolutionary soldier and a true internationalist fighter coming from the Latin-American people, died a heroic death on the Bolivian battlefield. In deep grief, and with burning hatred for the enemy, the Korean people join the revolutionary people throughout the world in commemorating the first anniversary of Comrade Che Guevara’s death.

Che Guevara followed the path of sacred battle to bring freedom and liberation to the people, holding aloft the banner of the anti-imperialist, anti-US struggle from early youth, and devoted his whole life to the revolutionary cause of the oppressed.

Ever since the curtain rose on the bloody history of the modern bourgeoisie replacing the medieval exploitation camouflaged by religious and political illusions by a naked, shameless, direct and cruel one and turning the dignity of man into a mere commodity, many communists and revolutionary fighters all over the world have shed their blood and laid down their lives in the long course of the revolutionary tempest which is sweeping away everything obsolete and corrupt and reorganizing the whole structure of society in a revolutionary way, crushing the ruling circles of that former, cursed society and laying the bases of a free and happy new society. Che Guevara dedicated his precious life to this sacred struggle and thus became an honourable member of the ranks of world revolutionary martyrs.

Che Guevara was an indefatigable revolutionary in battle and a true internationalist champion completely free of narrow nationalist sentiments. His whole life was a fine example of the steadfast revolutionary fighter and true internationalist.

With other Cuban revolutionaries led by Comrade Fidel Castro, Che Guevara carried on a heroic armed struggle which contributed greatly to crushing US imperialism and the dictatorial regime of its lackey Batista, and which led to the triumph of the Cuban revolution. Fired with revolutionary enthusiasm, Che Guevara left triumphant Cuba in 1965 and moved the sphere of his operations, setting up a new outpost where innumerable difficulties and harsh trials awaited him. Everywhere he went in Latin America, he organized and mobilized the masses in armed struggle against US imperialism and its sycophants and fought bravely in the vanguard to the end of his life.

Che Guevara’s revolutionary activities made a tremendous contribution to further consolidating the triumph of the Cuban revolution and stepping up the advancement of the Latin-American revolution as a whole.

The Cuban revolution is the first socialist revolutionary victory in Latin America, and it is a continuation, in Latin America, of the Great October Revolution. With the triumph of the Cuban revolution, the Red banner of socialism now flies high over Latin America, which was regarded until quite recently as the hereditary estate of US imperialism; thus the socialist camp has been extended to the Western Hemisphere and has grown much stronger. Today the Republic of Cuba, marching firmly at the forefront of the Latin-American revolution, is the beacon of hope for the fighting people of Latin America and it casts its victorious beam along the road of struggle. The triumph of the Cuban revolution shook the US imperialist colonial system to its very foundations in the Western Hemisphere and has thrown the whole of Latin America into revolutionary turbulence, dramatically arousing the people to join in the dedicated struggle for independence and freedom. Indeed, the triumph of the Cuban revolution marked the beginning of the disintegration of the system of US imperialist colonial rule in Latin America; it sternly judged and sentenced to destruction that imperialism which had exploited and oppressed the people in this area for so long.

Consolidation of the triumph of the Cuban revolution is not only an important question on which the life or death, the rise or fall of the Cuban people depend. It is also a key factor in influencing the general development of the Latin-American revolution.

Revolution begins with brilliant successes in one country but undergoes a lengthy period filled with pain. Countries whose proletariat seized power within the encirclement of international capitalism are threatened with the danger of imperialist aggression and the restoration of capitalism during the entire period of revolutionary transition from capitalism to socialism. The exploiting classes which have been over-thrown always attempt to recover their lost positions, and foreign imperialists continue to engage in invasion and subversive political and ideological intrigue and manoeuvres.

The US imperialists and the reactionaries of Latin America deeply hate and fear the very existence of the Republic of Cuba and are stubbornly and maliciously scheming to crush it. They are working hard to destroy the Cuban revolution so that they may drive out the “spectre” of communism haunting the Western Hemisphere and check the liberation struggle which is spreading like a prairie fire among the peoples of Latin America. While scheming to strangle Cuba by directly mobilizing their own armed forces, the US imperialists are instigating the reactionary dictatorial Latin-American regimes under their domination and subjugation to put political and economic pressure on Cuba and to suffocate her with their blockade policy.

To attain the ultimate victory of the revolution, the peoples who have gained power within the encirclement of international capital?while reinforcing their own internal forces in every way?should be given solid support by other forces of the world socialist revolution and broad international assistance by the working class and the oppressed peoples of all countries. In other words, successive revolutions should take place in the majority of countries of the world, in several adjacent countries at least, so as to replace imperialist encirclement with socialist encirclement. The barriers of imperialism which surround a socialist country should be torn down so that the dictatorship of the proletariat can become a worldwide system; and one country’s isolation as the socialist fortress within the encirclement should be ended with the formation of strong ties of militant solidarity of the international working class and the oppressed peoples of the world. Only then can it be said that all imperialists’ armed intervention will be prevented and their attempt to restore capitalism frustrated and that the ultimate victory of socialism has been secured.

Just as the forces of capital are international, so the liberation struggle of the peoples has an international character. The revolutionary movements in individual countries are national movements and, at the same time, constitute part of the world revolution. The revolutionary struggles of the peoples in all countries support and complement each other and join together in one current of world revolution. A victorious revolution should assist those countries whose revolutions have not yet triumphed, providing them with experiences and examples and should render active political, economic and military support to the liberation struggle of the peoples of the world. The peoples in countries which have not yet won their revolutions should fight more actively to defend the successful revolutions of other countries against the imperialist policy of strangulation and hasten victory for their own revolutions. This is the law of the development of the world revolutionary movement and the fine tradition already formed in the course of the people’s liberation struggle.

The Cuban revolution is an organic part of the world revolution and, in particular, constitutes the decisive link in the chain of Latin-American revolution. To defend the Cuban revolution and to consolidate and follow up its victories is not only the duty of the Cuban people but also the internationalist duty of the oppressed peoples of Latin America and all the revolutionary people of the world. In the same way that the defence of the gains of the October Revolution in Russia?which made the first breach in the world capitalist system?was an important question decisive of the fate of world revolutionary development, so, too, the defence of the gains of the Cuban revolution?which made the first breach in the colonial system of US imperialism in Latin America?is crucial to the fate of the Latin-American revolution.

It is of great importance to the defence of the Cuban revolution that the revolutionary movement in neighbouring Latin-American countries should advance. If the flames of revolution flare up fiercely in many countries of Latin America where US imperialism sets foot, its force will be dispersed, its energy sapped, and the attempts of the US imperialists and their lackeys to strangle Cuba by concentrated force will inevitably fail. Furthermore, if the revolution triumphs in other Latin-American countries, Cuba will be saved from the imperialism which hems her in on all sides, a favourable phase in the Cuban and Latin-American revolutions will be opened, and the world revolution will be even further advanced.

For a revolution to take place, the subjective and objective conditions must be created. Each country’s revolution should be carried out to suit its specific conditions in which the objective revolutionary situation is created. However, this by no means signifies that the revolution can develop or ripen by itself. It is always the case that the revolution can be advanced and brought to maturity only through hard struggle by revolutionaries. If, because revolution is difficult, we just wait for a favourable situation to come about and fail to play an active part, then revolutionary forces cannot be developed. Revolutionary forces cannot rise up spontaneously without a struggle; they can be fostered and strengthened only through an arduous struggle. Without preparing for the decisive hour of the revolution, preserving revolutionary forces from enemy suppression while constantly storing them up and building them through positive struggle, it will be impossible to succeed in the revolution even when the objective situation has been created. To turn away from revolution on the pretext of avoiding sacrifice is in fact tantamount to forcing the people to accept lifelong slavery to capital and to tolerate cruel exploitation and oppression, unbearable maltreatment and humiliation, enormous suffering and victimization for ever. It can be said that the acute pain experienced at a revolutionary turning point is always much easier to endure than the chronic pain caused by the cancer of the old society. Social revolution cannot be achieved as easily as going down a royal road in broad daylight or as smoothly as a boat sailing before the wind. There may be rough and thorny problems, twists and turns, along the path of revolution, and there may be temporary setbacks and partial sacrifices. To flinch before difficulties and hesitate in the revolution for fear of sacrifice is not the attitude befitting a revolutionary.

It is the task of revolutionaries of every country to define a scientific, careful method of struggle on the basis of a correct assessment of the internal and external situation and a proper calculation of the balance of forces between friends and enemies; they must store and build up the revolutionary forces by cultivating the nucleus and awakening the masses through the trials of revolution, carrying on an active struggle, yet circumventing the snags and avoiding unnecessary sacrifices at ordinary times. And it is their task to make complete preparations to meet the great revolutionary event. Once the revolutionary situation is created, they must seize the opportunity without hesitation and rise up in a decisive battle to shatter the reactionary regime.

The forms and methods of revolutionary struggle are also determined not by the wishes of individuals, but always by the prevailing subjective and objective situation created and the resistance of the reactionary ruling classes. Revolutionaries should be prepared for all forms of struggle; and they should effectively advance the revolutionary movement by properly combining the various forms and methods of that struggle?political, economic, violent, nonviolent, legal and illegal.

Counter-revolutionary violence is indispensable to the rule of all exploiting classes. Human history to date knows no instance of a ruling class submissively turning over its supremacy, nor any instance of a reactionary class meekly waiving its power without resorting to counterrevolutionary violence. The imperialists, in particular, cling ever more desperately to violent means of maintaining control as they approach their doom. While suppressing the peoples of their own countries, they brutally suppress all the revolutionary advances of the oppressed nations by mobilizing their military forces in order to invade and plunder other countries.

Under such conditions the liberation struggle of the oppressed peoples cannot emerge victorious without using revolutionary violence to crush foreign imperialists and overthrow the reactionary dictatorial machinery of their own exploiting classes which work hand in glove with imperialism. It is imperative to meet violence with violence and crush counter-revolutionary armed forces with revolutionary armed forces.

The revolutionary fires now raging furiously in Latin America are the natural outcome of the revolutionary situation created in this area.

The overwhelming majority of Latin-American countries have come under the complete domination and bondage of US imperialism. Pro-US dictatorships have been established in many Latin-American countries and their economy has been completely turned into an appendage to US monopolies. The US imperialists’ policy of aggression and plunder in Latin America is the major impediment to social progress in this area and has plunged the people into unbearable hardship and distress. The US imperialists and the pro-US dictatorships in Latin America set up extensive repressive agencies, including the army and police, and suppress all forms of revolutionary advance by the people in the most brutal way.

It is obvious that unless the ragged, hungry, oppressed and humiliated people in Latin America bravely take up arms to fight against their oppressors, they cannot attain freedom and liberation.

It is quite justifiable and admirable that under the banner of proletarian internationalism, under the banner of an anti-imperialist, anti-US struggle, Che Guevara, together with other Latin-American revolutionaries, took up arms and carried out an active, heroic revolutionary struggle in various Latin-American countries in the teeth of sacrifices in order to defend the Cuban revolution and hasten the day of liberation for the oppressed peoples in that area. The revolutionary people of the whole world express profound sympathy with the brave act of Che Guevara who waged a heroic armed struggle in company with other Latin-American revolutionaries. The brilliant example of Che Guevara is a paragon not only for the Latin-American people in their revolutionary struggle, but for the Asian and African peoples who are also fighting for liberation. It inspires them to great feats of heroism.

Che Guevara is not with us now. But the blood he shed will never be wasted. His name and the immortal revolutionary exploits he performed will go down for ever in the history of the liberation of mankind, and his noble revolutionary spirit will live for ever. Thousands, tens of thousands, of Che Guevaras will appear on the decisive battle grounds of the revolutionary struggle in Asia, Africa and Latin America, and the revolutionary cause which he left uncompleted will surely be won by the struggle of the Latin-American revolutionaries and revolutionary peoples the world over.

Today Asia, Africa and Latin America have become the most determined anti-imperialist front. Imperialism has met with the strong resistance of the Asian, African and Latin-American peoples and has suffered the heaviest blows from them. Nevertheless, imperialism is trying desperately to recover its former footing and to regain its lost positions in those areas.

The cause of liberation of Asians, Africans and Latin Americans has not yet been realized. So long as imperialism exists anywhere in the world and oppresses and plunders them, the people cannot stop their anti-imperialist struggle for even a moment. The struggle must continue until all shades of colonialism are wiped off the face of the earth once and for all, until all the oppressed and humiliated nations establish their independent states and achieve social progress and national prosperity.

Imperialism will never relinquish its domination over colonial and dependent countries without being kicked out. It is the nature of imperialism to commit aggression and plunder. Imperialism which was not aggressive would no longer be imperialism. It will not alter its aggressive nature before it dies. That is why one must dispel all illusions about imperialism and determine to fight it to the end. Only when a principled stand is maintained against it and a staunch anti-imperialist struggle is intensified can the oppressed nations win freedom and independence; only then can the liberated peoples check imperialist aggression, consolidate national independence, and achieve prosperity for their countries and nations.

US imperialism is the most barbarous and heinous imperialism of modern times; it is the ringleader of world imperialism. It is not only the Asian or the Latin-American or the African countries which are having their sovereignty and territories violated by US imperialism or which are being menaced by US imperialist aggression. There is no place on earth to which US imperialism has not stretched its tentacles of aggression, and wherever US imperialism sets foot, blood is spilled. The US imperialists pursue their constant aim of bringing the whole world under their control. To realize this aim, they continue to carry out invasion and subversive activities against the socialist and newly independent countries and brutally suppress the liberation struggle of the peoples of Asia, Africa and Latin America. This savage aggressive design of US imperialism must be conclusively frustrated. It is clear that world peace cannot be safeguarded, nor can national liberation and independence or the victory of democracy and socialism be achieved without fighting against US imperialism. The anti-US struggle is the inescapable duty and the principal revolutionary task common to all the peoples of the world.

For the successful defeat of US imperialism, it is necessary to penetrate its world strategy thoroughly.

US imperialism’s basic strategy for world aggression at the present stage is to destroy, one by one and by force of arms, the small and divided revolutionary socialist countries and the newly independent countries while refraining from worsening its relations with the big powers and avoiding confrontation with them as far as possible. In addition, it is to intensify its ideological and political offensives in an attempt to subvert from within those countries which are ideologically weak and are reluctant to make revolution and which spread illusions about imperialism among the people and want to live with it on good terms, noisily demanding nothing less than unprincipled coexistence.

On the basis of this world strategy, the US imperialists are greatly increasing their armaments and further reinforcing their military bases and aggressive military alliances so as to attack both the socialist and the progressive countries. They are extensively preparing total and nuclear war and have openly embarked on “local war” and “special war” in Viet Nam and elsewhere.

At the same time, while desperately trying to bribe and manipulate the cowards within the working-class movement who fear revolution, the US imperialists have resorted to a new form of cold war which encourages “liberalization” and “democratic development” in certain countries. They cry out for the “most favoured nation” treatment and the expansion of “East-West contacts and interchanges” and seek, by this means, to infiltrate their reactionary ideology and culture, degrading the peoples ideologically, hampering economic development and thus subverting those countries from within. The imperialists are carrying out sabotage and subversion to prise the newly independent states away from the anti-imperialist front one at a time. While resorting to overt force, they use “aid” as a bait to penetrate these countries and meddle in their internal affairs. The US imperialists whip together Right-wing reactionaries and pit them against progressive forces, and seek to influence certain newly independent countries to follow the road of counter-revolution.

In other words, wielding an olive branch in one hand and arrows in the other, the US imperialists are plotting to swallow up the revolutionary countries one by one through armed aggression and to subvert the ideologically weak countries through ideological and cultural aggression, combining nuclear blackmail with “peaceful penetration” and repression with appeasement and deception.

The people of the whole world should maintain the sharpest vigilance against such intrigues and stratagems by US imperialism and should be fully prepared to counter the enemy’s aggression in whatever forms it might appear.

In order to develop the anti-imperialist, anti-US struggle vigorously, it is important to cement as firmly as possible the militant unity of all areas, countries, parties, people to cement all the forces which oppose imperialism.

The revolutionary struggles of the Asian, African and Latin-American peoples are closely linked on the basis of common desires and aspirations. When Latin America groans under the imperialist yoke, the Asian and African peoples cannot live in peace; and when US imperialism collapses in the Asian and African areas, a favourable phase will also be created for the national-liberation movement of the Latin-American people. The militant unity and close ties of the Asian, African and Latin-American peoples will multiply the anti-imperialist, anti-US revolutionary forces several times, tens of times, and become an invincible force which can successfully frustrate imperialist aggression and the united front of international reaction. Therefore, wherever US imperialism is entrenched, the peoples should pool their strength and strike hard at it.

In Asia, Africa and Latin America there are socialist and neutral, large and small countries. All these countries except the imperialists’ puppet regimes and satellite states constitute anti-imperialist, anti-US forces. Despite the differences of socio-political systems, political views and religious beliefs, the peoples of these countries, because they are oppressed and exploited by the imperialists and colonialists, oppose imperialism and old and new colonialism and jointly aspire towards national independence and national prosperity. The differences in sociopolitical systems, political views or religious beliefs cannot be an obstacle to joint action against US imperialism. All countries should form an anti-imperialist united front and take anti-US joint action to crush the common enemy and attain the common goal.

It is true that there may be different categories of people amongst those who oppose imperialism. Some may actively oppose imperialism, others may hesitate in the anti-imperialist struggle, and still others may join the struggle reluctantly under pressure from their own people and the peoples of the world. But whatever their motives, it is necessary to enlist all these forces except the henchmen of imperialism in the combined anti-US struggle. If more forces?however inconsistent and unsteady?are drawn into the anti-US joint struggle to isolate US imperialism to the greatest possible extent and unite in attacking it, that will be a positive achievement. Those who avoid the anti-imperialist struggle should be induced to join it and those who are passive should be encouraged to become active. To split the anti-US united front or reject anti-US joint action will only lead to the serious consequence of weakening the anti-imperialist, anti-US struggle.

To defeat US imperialism, all countries, both large and small, should fight against it. It is particularly important here that small countries in Asia, Africa and Latin America relinquish flunkeyism, that is, the tendency to rely on big powers, and take an active part in the anti-US struggle. It is wrong to think that US imperialism cannot be beaten unless large countries fight it. It would certainly be better if large countries would join small countries to fight US imperialism. That is why small countries should endeavour to unite with large countries. But, this by no means signifies that only such a country can combat and defeat US imperialism. It is clear that a small nation will not be able to make revolution if it depends on large countries and sits by doing nothing; other peoples cannot and will not make the revolution for it. Even a small country can defeat a powerful enemy once it establishes Juche, unites the masses of the people and fights valiantly, regardless of the sacrifice. This is a very simple truth of our times which has been borne out by experience. The experience of the Korean war demonstrated this truth. And the triumph of the Cuban revolution and the Vietnamese people’s heroic war of resistance against US imperialism and for national salvation have eloquently endorsed it.

Moreover, when many countries, however small, pool their strength to fight imperialism, the peoples will overwhelm the enemy by superior forces however strong he may be. The peoples of the countries making revolution should combine their efforts to tear the left and the right arms from US imperialism, then the left and the right legs and, finally, behead it everywhere it raises its ugly head of aggression. The US imperialists are bluffing now. But when the revolutionary people of the world join in dismembering them, they will totter and finally crash into oblivion. We small nations must unite and counter US imperialism’s strategy of swallowing us up one by one, by each one of us chopping off its head and limbs. This is the strategy small countries must employ to defeat US imperialism.

For more than 20 years, the Korean people have fought against the occupation of south Korea by the US imperialists and for the reunification of the country. The Korean revolution is part of the international revolutionary movement, and the revolutionary struggle of the Korean people is developing within the joint struggle of the peoples of the whole world for peace and democracy, for national independence and socialism. The Korean people are fighting to realize their cause of national liberation and, at the same time, are doing everything in their power to accelerate the advancement of the international revolutionary movement as a whole. Our people unite with all forces opposing US imperialism and consistently support the peoples everywhere in their struggle against US imperialism. We consider this an important factor in bringing victory to the Korean revolution.

Imperialism is a moribund force whose days are numbered, whereas the peoples’ liberation struggle is a new force which aims for the progress of mankind. There may be innumerable difficulties and obstacles and twists and turns along the path of this liberation struggle. But it is the inevitable law of historical development that imperialism is doomed and the liberation struggle of the peoples is certain of victory. The US-led imperialists are desperately trying to check the surging liberation struggle of the peoples, and theirs is nothing but the deathbed tremor of those condemned to destruction. The more frenetically the US imperialists act, the more difficult their position becomes. US imperialism is going downhill. Its sun is setting, never to rise again. The US imperialists will undoubtedly be forced out of Asia, Africa and Latin America by the peoples’ liberation struggle. The great anti-imperialist revolutionary cause of the Asian, African and Latin-American peoples is invincible.

Saturday, 22 November 2008


Chinese President Hu Jintao (L) visits Fidel Castro, first secretary of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of Cuba, in Havana, capital of Cuba, Nov. 18, 2008

HAVANA, Nov. 18 (Xinhua) -- Chinese President Hu Jintao on Tuesday visited Fidel Castro, first secretary of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of Cuba, in Havana.

The two leaders warmly shook hands, exchanged greetings and had a long conversation in a sincere and friendly atmosphere.

Hu said he was delighted to see Castro again. The comrades of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of China "have all cared about your health and I brought their sincere greetings to you," he said.

"I see in person that you have recovered and have been energetic so I feel very pleased," he told Castro.

Castro extended a warm welcome to Hu for his second state visit to Cuba. "We are old friends. I am happy to see that you are as energetic as when I met you last time," he said.

Hu said that as the founder of the Cuban socialist revolution and construction, Castro is dearly adored by the Cuban people. During the past half century, Castro led the heroic Cuban people in their fearless struggle to safeguard state sovereignty and adhere to the path of socialism, thus winning respect from people worldwide, including the Chinese people.

Hu said that Castro has followed closely his country's development, showed great concern about people's life and dedicated himself to profound reflections of major strategic issues, such as international affairs and national development.

"Your thoughts and experience will surely guide the Cuban people to continue their march on the road of socialist construction," he said.

On Sino-Cuban relations, Hu said relations between the two countries have withstood the changes of international situation thanks to the joint efforts to forge and nurture their bilateral ties by generations of Chinese leaders, including Mao Zedong, DengXiaoping and Jiang Zemin, and Castro and other Cuban leaders.

"The brotherly friendship between our two countries and two parties has been deeply rooted in the hearts of our two peoples," he said.

"The Chinese people will never forget that thanks to your concern and effort that Cuba became the first Latin American nation to forge diplomatic ties with China 48 years ago," he said.

Thanks to the concerted efforts of both sides, the Sino-Cuban mutually beneficial and friendly cooperation in all areas have been expanding continuously, and bilateral ties have entered a new era of all-round development, said Hu.

"Our two nations, parties and peoples have become reliable friends and brothers who share weal and woe," he said.

"What affected me and other Chinese leaders most is that you always pay close attention to China's development and remain committed to promoting friendly cooperation between our two countries," Hu added.

Hu noted that Castro ordered to send a medical team to China immediately after the devastating earthquake in Wenchuan, southwest China's Sichuan province on May 12.

The Cuban leader also made constant phone calls to offer instructions on the team's work in China, Hu added.

Moreover, in his article entitled China's Victory, Castro has showed his firm support for China on such major issues as Taiwan, Tibet and the Olympic Games in Beijing, the Chinese president said.

The Cuban leader has also showed great concern about the Chinese students studying in Cuba and the progress of a joint ophthalmic hospital. "The Chinese people, the Communist Party of China and the Chinese government will for ever remember all these," he said.

Castro expressed appreciation of China's relief and reconstruction efforts following the Wenchuan earthquake and other natural disasters. He once again congratulated China on its successful hosting of the Beijing Olympic Games and Paralympics as well as the success of the Shenzhou-7 manned space mission.

Hu said that the Chinese government will always adhere to the principle of long-term friendship between China and Cuba. The Chinese people will, as always, support the just struggle of the Cuban people in safeguarding state sovereignty and opposing outside interference.

China will continue to provide assistance for Cuba within its capacity, and will firmly support the country's socialist cause, he said.

"We will work with the Cuban people to continuously push forward the development of friendship between China and Cuba," he added.

Castro said he and other Cuban comrades have followed closely "everything that happened in China."

"China has a large population and a culture of long standing and the Chinese people are known for their diligence," he said, adding that the Chinese people "have surmounted all manner of unimaginable difficulties and accomplished great achievements in construction."

"As the current international financial crisis is spreading, the Chinese economy has kept a sound momentum for development, demonstrating that China is the most prepared country," he said.

China is the most dynamic nation in the world and "no force can stop it from forging ahead," he said.

The two leaders also exchanged views on the two countries' economic development and major international and regional issues, including the international financial crisis and the world economy.

Before the conclusion of the meeting, Hu again expressed his heartfelt wish for Castro's good health. Castro, in return, expressed his gratitude.

Cuba is the third leg of Hu's five-nation trip. He has attended a Group of 20 summit on the financial crisis in Washington and visited Costa Rica.

He will also visit Peru and Greece, and attend the Economic Leaders' Informal Meeting of the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) forum in the Peruvian capital of Lima.

Thursday, 20 November 2008


Lebanon salutes Cuban revolution and pays tribute to Cuban
and Arab prisoners in U.S. and Zionist jails Marking
the fiftieth anniversary of the victory of the Cuban
revolution and expressing solidarity with the five Cuban
prisoners in U.S. prisons and the prisoners and detainees
in the Zionist jails, as well as celebrating the seventh
anniversary of the heroic operation of October 17, a
celebration and forum was held welcoming the Cuban
ambassador to Lebanon.

The Popular Front for the Liberation of Palestine and the
Committee in Solidarity with the Prisoners and Detainees in
U.S. and Zionist prisons, in cooperation with the Lebanese
Democratic Youth Union, the Palestinian Youth Organization,
the educational organization of Hezbollah, the Palestinian
Federation of Democratic Youth, the Palestinian Youth
Center, the Cultural Images Forum, the Committee for the
Defense of Prisoners and Detainees in Zionist Prisons and
the Assembly in Support of the Lebanese Prisoners,
organized the event on November 3, 2008.

The event took place in the Basil al-Assad Cultural Center
and welcomed a Cuban, Palestinian andLebanese crowd from
many forces and political parties, parliamentary factions,
national and Islamic forces, Lebanese popular
organizations, Palestinian popular committees, and social,
educational and cultural groups. The event began with a
welcoming and the playing of the Cuban, Lebanese and
Palestinian national anthems.

Comrade Abu Jaber, member of the Central Committee of the
PFLP, speaking on behalf of the PFLP, praised relations
between Palestinians and Cuba, and noted the connection
between southern Lebanon, northern Palestine to the island
of Cuba, and saluted all of the struggling people. He noted
that despite the intensification of the US and Zionist
onslaught in the region and the world, seeking to impose
its hegemony, they face a worse predicament daily due to
the valiant resistance in the region and around the world,
from Palestine to Latin America to Lebanon, Iraq and

He called upon all Palestinian parties to renounce division
and return to the path of Palestinian national unity and
give priority to the national interests of the Palestinian
people. He also paid tribute to all of the resistance to
the imperialist and Zionist projects and paid tribute to
the five Cuban prisoners and to all of the detainees and
prisoners in Zionist jails and especially Comrade General
Secretary Ahmad Sa'adat, and also to the heroes of October

He stressed the importance of securing the rights of the
Palestinian people in Lebanon as well as the inviolable
right to return of the Palestinian people to our occupied
homeland. He also noted the defeat of Zionism inLebanon in
2006 and the continuing steadfastness of the Palestinian
people in 48 occupied lands, the West Bank and Gaza, and
noted that the attack of the US upon Syrian territory comes
as another attempt that will fail to crush the resistance.
Comrade Abu Jaber closed by saluting the freed comrade Sona
al-Rai, the longest-serving Palestinian woman prisoner and
stressed that the Front will remain faithful to our people,
our struggle and our cause until victory and liberation.

The Cuban ambassador to Lebanon spoke, thanking the PFLP
for its role in organizing the event, and paying tribute to
all who struggle against US imperialism and the Zionist
project. He noted the brave resistance in Palestine and
Lebanon, and paid tribute to the martyrdom of Che Guevara,
who stood in the face of global imperialism in Cuba, the
Congo and Bolivia, and emphasized that were he alive today,
Guevara would not hesitate for a moment to join the ranks
of resistance in Palestine, Lebanon and Iraq and all sites
of confrontation with imperialism and Zionism.

He closed by calling, "Down with imperialism! Down with
oppression and tyranny! Victory for the people struggling
for liberation and progress!"

The Palestinian Youth Organization presented an award to
the Ambassador, and screened a film, "Guevara Lives,"
paying tribute to the life of Che Guevara, and exhibited a
photo exhibition about the life of Che Guevara

Published by the Popular Front for the Liberation of Palestine (http://www.pflp.ps/english)

Wednesday, 19 November 2008


November 14, 2008

Marulanda believed U.S. intervention in Colombia
was imminent, Fidel Castro’s book

Castro says he tried to convince the FARC leader to make
an agreement with Andrés Pastrana.

The guerrilla commander understood he had missed a unique
historic chance when he decided not to go to San Vicente del Caguán.

Tirofijo (Sureshot, in Spanish) was plotting a final
offensive to “split the country in two” and get control of
its departments. By Gerardo Arreola (Correspondent)

A CubaNews translation. Edited by Walter Lippmann.

Havana, November 13.- Cuba tried to talk Manuel Marulanda
into reaching a peace agreement with Andrés Pastrana’s
government in 1999, but the then-leader of the
Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia (FARC) believed in
an impending U.S. intervention and decided instead to
engage in talks to play for time as he planned a lengthy
war that might eventually turn into a “continent-wide
struggle”, Cuban documents declassified this week reveal.

Started in a demilitarized zone covering five
municipalities centered in San Vicente del Caguán, the
three-year-long dialogue between Pastrana and the FARC “was
the time when the odds were heavily for some progress”
toward a peace agreement, according to José Arbesú, at the
time Cuba’s direct liaison with the Colombian guerrilla.

These documents, featured in Fidel Castro’s new book La paz
en Colombia (Peace in Colombia), include personal
statements by the ex-Cuban ruler and confirm the guerrillas
met in Costa Rica with U.S. officials that same year to
discuss an antidrug strategy, about which Castro said
sarcastically: “When it came to asking for the FARC’s
‘cooperation’ they were not terrorists!”

In the launching ceremony, Arbesú, the main operator of
relations with the hemisphere in the Communist Party,
assured both sides made an ‘error of judgment’ in San
Vicente del Caguán: Pastrana thought the island carried
more clout with the guerrillas, and the FARC assumed Havana
would argue reasons of State and lean toward the Colombian

Castro filled 50 of the 265 pages of the book with
transcripts of testimonies on Marulanda’s origins and
political record, documents about San Vicente del Caguán,
and his conclusion that Tirofijo “understands the realities
of the country and the period in which it befell him to
live. He was far from being the bandit and drug trafficker
that his enemies made him out to be”.

Mention is also made in the papers of Marulanda’s plan to
travel to Cuba, but there’s no proof the visit ever

For all their ideological alikeness and affinity, the peace
talks with Pastrana worsened relations between the FARC and
the Cuban government, the book shows.

One of the declassified documents is a July 24, 1998 report
signed by Marcos Calarcá, then the FARC’s international
spokesperson, stating that Marulanda was convinced a U.S.
military intervention was brewing which would change
everything, and that therefore the guerrillas had to get
ready to “take its impact”; that he intended to hold three
or four more rounds [of talks] and “leave the negotiations
with a good image and the extra time we need”. They were
“worried” about Cuba’s declarations against the use of
armed methods during those days.

Another document concludes that the FARC “deems Cuba’s
presence and role in the process as a counteweight to the
pressure coming from other governments who cosponsored the
dialogue, such as Mexico, Venezuela, Spain and Costa Rica”.

In January 1999, Arbesú was invited to the talk-opening
ceremony in Caguán and from there traveled to guerrilla
territory to meet with Marulanda, who snubbed Pastrana by
not joining the dialogue, an absence the FARC leader
explained away –according to the Cuban envoy’s report– by
saying he had made no commitment to go and claiming
security risks. He insisted that he never intended to
humiliate the president, and what mattered was that the
talks had finally begun.

“Faced with our arguments about the importance of his
presence, Marulanda understood he had missed a historic
chance to let the world know him and said this was a long
process” and the opportunity would arise again, Arbes ú
pointed out.

Marulanda, the report goes on, believed Pastrana was a man
of “goodwill” but not strong enough to keep the
paramilitaries on a tight leash, let alone his allies, and
“going on with the war” was the only way to bring pressure
to bear on him.

“Even if we can be of assistance to both sides, we must
exercise caution and keep a rather low profile”, Arbesú
writes in his conclusions. “There are many –including the
Colombian government and mass media– who overrate our
influence on the guerrilla and want to get us saddled with
the role of mediators or facilitators”.

In January, Pastrana and Castro met in Havana and the
following month in Caracas. Cuba shared information with
both sides. Arbesú went back to the mountains to see
Marulanda, who insisted the president was “isolated”. The
guerrilla leader “gave no opinion on whether a negotiated
solution was possible, feasible or likely”.

“Head-to-head” all the way

Marulanda confides to the Cuban emissary he’s planning a
“final offensive”. He would split the country in two, seize
powerr in some provinces, and continue the conflict. Should
the U.S. butt in, “they will give us the chance to spread
the struggle across the continent and ask revolutionaries
from other countries for their help”.

Arbesú remarks that “we had long discussions” about a U.S.
intervention. “We talked about similar experiences
elsewhere in the continent and told him his views about the
international situation were quite wide of the mark”.

“We insisted”, Arbesú says, “that Pastrana could only give
in so much, and he was perhaps the right person to find the
sui generis solution mentioned in the message [seemingly,
from Castro], acceptable to all parties in light of such a
difficult international situation. We told him that even a
victory would be hard to sustain with the world on the
brink of a very serious and maybe permanent economic
crisis, and that saving time was of the essence”.

Arbesú tells the FARC leader that it was Castro’s
intercession with Pastrana which had made the extension of
the cease-fire possible, reminds him that “a Latin America
without Colombia is inconceivable, and a new Cuba was not
possible now”, and stresses that those were the Cuban
president’s opinions.

Castro underscores that since back in 1999 Cuba “was
striving to find a solution to the Colombian case in view
of the entirely new circumstances in that country decades
after the triumph of the Cuban Revolution”.

It was known that Raúl Reyes –killed during the Colombian
army’s raid on Ecuador last March– had met with a U.S.
official in Costa Rica, so successful, as evidenced by the
Cuban documents, that a second round was called in Mexico,
with Colombia’s support and Washington’s funds, to discuss
“a pilot plan at municipal level to replace coca with other

Whether those contacts have continued remains to be known.
The peace process of San Vicente del Caguán fell through in


Thursday, 13 November 2008


BLACK PANTHER magazine now available

Dear Friends,

The ‘Panther Legacy’ magazine is now for sale.

[front cover pictured left]

This stylish-looking publication is exclusively designed by urban-artist Jaykoe. Just on aesthetics alone this is must have collector’s item.

You will not find magazine like this anywhere else!

This 36 page publication is jammed packed with extracts from the auto-biographies of Huey Newton, Bobby Seale, Assata Shakur, Stanley Tookie Williams (founder of the LA street-gang Crips) and extracts from Tupac/2Pac Shakur’s biography amongst many other articles.

Panther Legacy includes Black Panther newspaper covers and other Black Liberation Movement artwork.

Price per one copy: £3 GBP / $5 USD / 3.60 EUR

+ p&p: £0.50p to Britain / 1.30 EUR to Europe / $ 2.20 to USA and the rest of the world.

This limited edition publication can be bought by bank transfer to the following bank details:

Mr Sukant Chandan

Barclays Bank

Sort code: 20 49 76

Account No: 60480207

Please email/text/phone me to let me know the payment has been made and the magazine will be sent off to you straight away once payment is confirmed.

For multiple orders please contact me to work out p+p according to how many copies you would like.


Sukant Chandan

Editor of Panther Legacy magazine


0044 7709 112 126

[pic: Billy X head of the Black Panther Alumni holding the Panther Legacy magazine up at Sandino's Bar, Derry northern Ireland alongside Eamon McCann and Emory Douglas]

Wednesday, 12 November 2008


A HARDCORE group of Celtic fans are plotting to disrupt a poppy day event at Parkhead.

They will SHUN a minute’s silence for war dead — then WALK OUT of the stadium.

The protest comes after Celtic agreed, like all other SPL clubs, to wear poppies on their jerseys this weekend.

That angered supporters group the Green Brigade, which is spearheading the planned action at Saturday’s game with Motherwell.

They are backed by Cairde Na h�ireann — a sister group of Sinn Fein — and TAL fanzine, which said: �We will be protesting against this pro-imperialist nonsense.�

They’ll hand out leaflets showing grieving Iraqi civilians and calling Hoops chairman John Reid — the former Defence Secretary — a WAR CRIMINAL.

And the Association of Irish Celtic Supporters Clubs said yesterday it should’ve been consulted over the poppy decision.

A club spokesman said: �We expect any protest to be inconsequential.�

Monday, 10 November 2008


Miriam Makeba, 76, Singer and Activist, Dies

NY Times

LONDON — Miriam Makeba, a South African singer whose voice stirred hopes of freedom among millions in her own country though her music was formally banned by the apartheid authorities she struggled against, died early Monday after performing at a concert in Italy. She was 76.

The Associated Press quoted hospital authorities as saying she died following a heart attack after being brought to a hospital in Castel Volturno near Naples in southern Italy. She had been singing at a concert in support of Roberto Saviano, an author who has received death threats after writing about organized crime. Ms. Makeba collapsed as she was leaving the stage, the South African authorities said. She died at the private Pineta Grande clinic in Castel Volturno, where she was brought by ambulance, according to a physcian on duty there. Efforts to resuscitate her failed, the doctor said, speaking in return for anonymity under hospital rules.

Although Ms. Makeba had been weakened by osteoarthritis, her death stunned many in South Africa, where she stood as an enduring emblem of the travails of black people under the apartheid system of racial segregation that ended with the release from prison of Nelson Mandela in 1990 and the country’s first fully democratic elections in 1994.

In a statement on Monday, Mr. Mandela said the death “of our beloved Miriam has saddened us and our nation.”

He continued: “Her haunting melodies gave voice to the pain of exile and dislocation which she felt for 31 long years. At the same time, her music inspired a powerful sense of hope in all of us.”

“She was South Africa’s first lady of song and so richly deserved the title of Mama Afrika. She was a mother to our struggle and to the young nation of ours,” Mr. Mandela is one of many tributes from South African leaders.

“One of the greatest songstresses of our time has ceased to sing,” Foreign Minister Nkosazana Dlamini-Zuma said in a statement. “Throughout her life, Mama Makeba communicated a positive message to the world about the struggle of the people of South Africa and the certainty of victory over the dark forces of apartheid and colonialism through the art of song.”

Widely known as “Mama Africa”, she had been a prominent exiled opponent of apartheid since the South African authorities revoked her passport in 1960 and refused to allow her to return after she traveled abroad. She was prevented from attending her mother’s funeral after touring in the United States.

For 31 years, Ms. Makeba lived in exile, variously in the United States, France, Guinea and Belgium. South Africa’s state broadcasters banned her music after she spoke out against apartheid at the United Nations in 1976 — the year of the Soweto uprising that accelerated the demands of the black majority for democratic change.

“I never understood why I couldn’t come home,” Ms. Makeba said upon her return at an emotional homecoming in Johannesburg in 1990 as the apartheid system began to crumble, according to The Associated Press. “I never committed any crime.”

Music was a central part of the struggle against apartheid. The South African authorities of the era exercised strict censorship of many forms of expression, while many foreign entertainers discouraged performances in South Africa in an attempt to isolate the white authorities and show their opposition to apartheid.

From exile she acted as a constant reminder of the events in her homeland as the white authorities struggled to contain or pre-empt unrest among the black majority.

Ms. Makeba wrote in 1987: “I kept my culture. I kept the music of my roots. Through my music I became this voice and image of Africa, and the people, without even realizing.”

She was married several times and her husbands included the American black activist Stokely Carmichael, with whom she lived in Guinea, and the jazz trumpeter Hugh Masekela, who also spent many years in exile.

In the United States she became a star, touring with Harry Belafonte in the 1960s and winning a Grammy award with him in 1965. Such was her following and fame that she sang in 1962 at the birthday party of President John F. Kennedy. She also performed with Paul Simon on his Graceland concert in Zimbabwe in 1987.

But she fell afoul of the U.S. music industry because of her marriage to Mr. Carmichael and her decision to live in Guinea.

In one of her last interviews, in May 2008 with the British music critic Robin Denselow, she said she found her concerts in the United States . being cancelled. “It was not a ban from the government. It was a cancellation by people who felt I should not be with Stokely because he was a rebel to them. I didn’t care about that. He was somebody I loved, who loved me, and it was my life,” she said.

Ms. Makeba was born in Johannesburg on March 4, 1932, the daughter of a Swazi mother and a father from the Xhosa people who live mainly in the eastern Cape region of South Africa. She became known to South Africans in the Sophiatown district of Johannesburg in the 1950s.

According to Agence France-Presse, she was often short of money and could not afford to buy a coffin when her only daughter, Bondi, died aged 36 in 1985. She buried her alone, barring a handful of journalists from covering the funeral.

She was particularly renowned for her performances of songs such as what was known as the Click Song — named for a clicking sound in her native tongue — or “Qongoqothwane,” and Pata Pata, meaning Touch Touch in Xhosa. Her style of singing was widely interpreted as a blend of black township rhythms, jazz and folk music.

In her interview in 2008, Ms. Makeba said: “I’m not a political singer. I don’t know what the word means. People think I consciously decided to tell the world what was happening in South Africa. No! I was singing about my life, and in South Africa we always sang about what was happening to us _ especially the things that hurt us.”

Sunday, 9 November 2008


[platform from the Tabernacle event, left-right: Emory Douglas, Massoud Shadrajeh from the Islamic Human Rights Commission, Sukant Chandan (chair) and Billy X]

Dear Friends,

The final event of the Panther Legacy tour organised by the
Black Panther Commemoration Committee and many other
friends, was concluded last night at the Tabernacle in
Ladbroke Grove with well over 100 people in attendance.

The BPCC would like to thank all the new friends we have
made in the organising of this week, all our volunteers and
especially Brother Emory Douglas and Brother Billy X from
the Black Panther Alumni.

This is a start of a new relationship with so many people
and organisations and we are stepping up to even bigger and
better things.

A more complete report will follow shortly.

All power to the people.

Black Panther Commemoration Committee

London, 10/11/08

Thursday, 6 November 2008


[pictured left-right: Sukant Chandan (chair), Emory Douglas, George Galloway MP and Billy X]

Dear Friends,

Another great meeting held last night [05/11/08] in the Grand Committee Room in the Houses of Parliament.

Again, time does not allow me to give full credit to the content of the contributions by George, Emory and Billy X.

The meeting was jointly organised by the Respect political party and the Black Panther Commemoration Committee (BPCC). George Galloway Member of Parliament is the Respect party's leader, and also spoke last night.

On a day when the USA elected its first African-American President, we too made a little bit of history on this day by having Black Panthers speaking for the first time (to the best of our knowledge) in the Houses of Parliament.

The meeting was packed with around 80 people in attendance.

George Galloway made a great speech as per-usual, focusing on the mis-representation of the Black Panthers as offensively militaristic. Galloway stressed that rather their strategy was always one of self-defence. Galloway also spoke at some length about Obama's victory, and the controversies around his presidential campaign in relation to Bill Ayers and Obama's Muslim background. George mentioned that there must be something good in Obama's victory if only judging from the hysteria around his middle name 'Hussein', and the general right-wing and Zionist frenzied campaign against Obama.

Emory and Billy X both made great speeches recounting their experiences that led them to join the Panthers and their experiences thereof.

Emory talked of how the underlying injustices continue for working class and oppressed people of colour in the USA despite the Obama's achievement of reaching the presidency. Emory stressed that the causes of indecent housing, unemployment and racism still needs to be addressed. Emory also stated that McCain and those like him have not gone away and will keep putting pressure on Obama to disable him from making any progress.

It was particularly great to see so many young people attending this meeting. It is not often in political meetings that young working class people from both black and white backgrounds come together to and engage in discussion regarding the issues of race and class oppression and what to do about these issues.

After the the session of speeches and debate people in the room continued to discuss with each other in a general positive atmosphere of friendship and solidarity with the Panthers.

On behalf of the Black Panther Commemoration Committee I would like to thank Caroline, Kevin Ovenden and George Galloway, Alexandra, Fahim, Carrie and the Treatment Room crew, Black 9 Films who filmed the event, Steve and Henna who photographed the event, all those who attended, and all the BPCC volunteers and organisers.

Sukant Chandan
Black Panther Commemoration Committee
London, 6/11/08

Tuesday, 4 November 2008


[pictured: people at the meeting. On the left, Linton Kwesi Johnson making a contribution from the floor, Billy X at the back with the baseball hat and blue t-shirt]

Just a quick note to report on last night's event. Due to time
constraints, I cannot do justice to everyone's contributions on the
evening. However I thought it might interest people to read a little

For those who don't know, Brixton is perhaps the beating heart of the
Black/West Indian community in Britain. It is a place of great
struggle, confidence and cultural vibrancy.

Here you can see a doc-film about the Brixton uprising
against police brutality.

Like any community of the oppressed, it is also a cultural
centre of the peoples, and has produced many great artists
and music.

Congratulations to all the sisters in the Remember Olive

Collective, a group of sisters in Brixton who have recently

set-up this collective to keep the legacy of Olive Morris alive.

Olive Morris was a young Black Panther in Brixton. They

organised a great meeting, the food was delicious courtesy

of Elaine Holness - Director of the Karibu Centre.

The event was packed out, around 150 people, standing room
only. There were the 'elders' of the movement there, many
former members from the Black Panther Movement from the
1970s, and many other younger members of the community.

Clarence Thompson eloquently recited his amazing poem in
dedication to the ANC struggle in 1985, a poem which is
displayed at the UN building in NY.

The great dub-poet and struggler Linton Kwesi-Johnson said
a few words of wisdom. He talked of the importance of the
Black Panther Movement (BPM) in opening peoples eyes to the
great contribution to literature of Black people, which
hitherto has been buried.

Neil Kenlock, founder of Choice FM (although he no longer
runs it) spoke of his involvement in the BPM, over a slide
show of pictures of struggle from the 1970s. Neil Kenlock
was photographer for the BPM.

Ana Laura, Liz, Linton and Neil all spoke endearingly of
Olive Morris and her commitment to liberation of all oppressed

and working class people. It was fitting that Yana Morris,

Olive’s sister, said a few words about her late Sister on behalf

of the Morris family.

Billy X of the Black Panther Party Alumni in the USA
explained how the Black Panthers comprised many young
people. He himself joined when he was only 17, and the
Party was comprised mainly of very young people. Billy X
talked about the importance that the BPP put on ideological
education, especially of Mao tse-tung's teachings.

Emory Douglas talked through a slide show of his incredible
art, giving insight and historical context to his work.

It was a touching movement of solidarity when around a
dozen people took a picture together, the people being
Billy X and Emory, with many former Black Panthers in

The Black Panther Commemoration Committee's new magazine,
'Panther Legacy' was very well received by people at the
meeting. This magazine can be acquired by getting in touch
with me.

Billy and Emory are today in another heart of resistance to
imperialism and racism - northern Ireland in Derry where
they are speaking with veteran civil-rights activist Eamonn
McCann, and also meeting a high-level delegation from the
Irish national-liberation and socialist movement Sinn Fein
and Sinn Fein Youth.

[Pictures to follow soon.]

Billy X and Emory are speaking with George Galloway MP
tomorrow in Parliament, see details HERE:

And we hope people will join us especially on this Saturday
at another centre of struggle and culture - Notting Hill /
Ladbroke Grove / Portobello, which will be a great night of
resistance and culture in a great venue - The Tabernacle -
and the last engagement of Billy X and Emory before they
leave - see HERE, or the facebook event page HERE:

Sukant Chandan
Black Panther Commemoration Committee